Lead and Zinc (East Oxide)


A chemical element with the symbol Zn, Zin has atomic number, 30, and white-blue color, which gets darker once exposed to air humidity. It produces a shiny green color during combustion. It is the fourth most used metal in the world after iron, aluminum and copper. Zinc oxidized compounds in nature include: Smithzonite Znco3, hemimorphite Zn4 [(OH) 2-si2o7] and ZINCITE ZnO and H2O. In Mehdiabad Mine Complex, there are two types of Zinc Oxide: Smithzonite and hemimorphite. Zinc oxide can be seen in yellow, orange, brown and gray due to presence of Iron and Manganese.


Zinc alloys have been used for centuries. Brass goods originate back to 1000-1400 years ago. Extraction and refining of unpure zinc was conducted 1000 BC in India and China. In Iran, prior to World War II, mining in lead and zinc mines was in the form of the traditional and primary. In the 1930s, new mining methods applying the scientific methods in metal mines and other mines of Iran were trained by the Germans. The first factory concentrating lead and zinc by new methods operated with the help of a French company in lkan (Markazi Province) in 1961. But the first successful efforts to produce zinc bars at industrial scale initiated in the early 1370’s (1990’s) in Zanjan.


Zinc metal is used in electroplating other metals to prevent them from rust. Zinc is used in alloys such as brass, Nickel Silver, typewriter metal, various formulas of German silver solder etc. Brass, due to strength and resistance to rust and corrosion has wide applications. Zinc is extensively used in automotive industry on Die Casting. Tube zinc is utilized as part of the content of batteries. Zinc oxide as a white pigment in blue colors as well as actuator used in the Rubber industry. As Over the counter ointment, zinc is used as a thin layer on the skin of the face and nose to prevent the skin from shrinking and losing water, and to protect against sunburn in the summer and the winter wind. Zinc chloride is used as wood protective as well as a deodorant. The antiseptic solutions made of Calamine and a combination of Zn-Hydroxy-Carbonate and silicate is used for the treatment of skin acnes. With reviews on properties of zinc, it can be concluded that this element can accelerate recovery after surgery.

Safety information (zinc carbonate)

First aid in time of exposure:

In case of contact:

Eye: wash eyes with plenty of water at least 15 minutes in a manner that the whole eye is washed + do emergency medicine

Skin: wash with plenty of water and non-peeling soap for infected skin. Use emollient ointments and referral to do medical urgency.

Inhalation: a quick exit from the place of contact and the transfer of the person exposed to clean air. The use of the artificial respiration equipment if needed. The use of oxygen in the capsule, if the person is barely breathing. referral to do emergency medicine.