Lead and Zinc (Calamine)


Calamine is zinc carbonate mineral ZnCO3 that crystallizes in a hexagonal or trigonal system and is often seen in muddy brown, yellow, white, green or pink. Due to impurities of iron oxide 3 capacities, calamine is sometimes found pink and reddish brown. Smithzonite can be seen as colloidal or honeycomb bodies.

The mineral hardness is 5-4, in the past called Urchin Stone, derived from the Persian Doudia.

In Mehdiabad Mine Complex, calamine is seen in a mix of yellow and orange and gray.

The oxidized compounds in nature: smithzonite ZnCo3, hemi morphite Zn4 [(OH) 2-si2o7] .H2O and ZINCITE ZnO.


Zinc alloys have been used for centuries. Brass goods originate back to 1000-1400 years ago. Extraction and refining of unpure zinc was conducted 1000 BC in India and China. In Iran, prior to World War II, mining in lead and zinc mines was in the form of the traditional and primary. In the 1930s, new mining methods applying the scientific methods in metal mines and other mines of Iran were trained by the Germans. The first factory concentrating lead and zinc by new methods operated with the help of a French company in lkan (Markazi Province) in 1961. But the first successful efforts to produce zinc bars at industrial scale initiated in the early 1370’s (1990’s) in Zanjan.


The main applications include:

۱٫ Anti-corrosion coatings on steel (galvanization)

۲٫ precision parts (die – automotive)

۳٫ structural materials

۴٫ Brass

۵٫ battery

۶٫ Drug and Cosmetic

۷٫ micronutrients for humans, animals and plants

Safety Information (zinc carbonate)

First Aid at time of exposure:

In case of contact:

Eye: Wash eyes with plenty of water at least 15 minutes so that the entire eye is washed well and do emergency medicine

SKIN: : wash with plenty of water and non-peeling soap for infected skin. Use emollient ointments and referral to do medical urgency

Inhalation: rapid exit from the envoironment of contact and transferring person to get clean air, use artificial breathing equipment if needed, use oxygen if the person has difficulty breathing, referral for medical emergencies.